Civil War in Djibouti
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As it established, main cause of war in Djibouti was political underrepresentation of one of two main ethnic groups in the country. Somali-related Issa traditionally competed with an Afars for a first place in the administration and local politics. At the time of French administration Afar were empowered, and after Djibouti gain independence levers of power gradually transferred to the more numerous Issas.

Opposition against this started to make bricks together at the 80s, but it is not before 1990 deterioration of situation was go to the dangerous line. 1990 and 1991 marked by the periodical violent confrontations on the ethnic and political grounds. In the February of 1990 two of the Afar political groups united themselves as an UMD (United Council for Democracy), and at the end of the next year Afar sentiments against repressive acts of Djibouti government grew up to the armed actions.

This tendency was personalized by the FRUD (Front for a Restoration of Unity and Democracy), which started struggle in the North portion of country, near Tadjoura and Obock. Front mainly recruited ethnic Afar, but there was credible reports, that some of the Somali dissidents joined forces with organization. His main objective traditionally defined as a reformist, not a secessionist one. Soon insurgency take as much a throttle, that Djibouti government ask a France for military assistance. It is very difficult to access what happened in the region next piece of time, due to the acute shortage of verifiable accounts and general information, but clear, that both sides violated human rights. There is also infromation about forced closure of food deliveries to the insurgent region and widespread hunger in the Northern section of Djibouti. At the February of 1992 Djibouti president claimed, that he considered proposal of returning to multi-party political system. After that he succeed with a French mediation to lure some of the insurgents lay down arms and return to the political scene. But cease-fire agreement broken in the next Summer, and fighting continue intermittenly until the June of 1993, with a special surge in the January of 1993. In June 1993 Djiboutian army start a wide and well-prepared military operation against insurgents, and pushing them to the uninhabited regions of country.

After some delayings, in the February 1994 negotiations begin. At the end of the year one fraction of FRUD agree to the cease-fire, re-constituted themselves as a political party and some 200 of their adherenets was integrated in the civil service and local administration and almost 700 of fighters joined regular army. Other section, leaded by Ahmed Dini, continue low-scale insurgency next few years, being especially visible in the 1996 year. In the December of 2000 this fraction also signed cease-fire and take five government post. Accordingly to the words of agreement, administrative reform were ensued soon after.

It is possible to conclude, that Djibouti war presented us with a classical positive example of African peace-making, when all groups involved receive a share in the administration.


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